The notion of marketing is the plan that companies put into action in order to meet the demands of their consumers, boost sales, and maximize profits while also beating out the competitors. There are five different marketing principles that companies embrace and put into practice. The first is the production idea, the second is the product concept, the third is the selling concept, the fourth is the marketing concept, and the fifth is the societal marketing concept.
The sector of management known as marketing focuses on formulating plans with the intention of establishing mutually beneficial connections with certain types of customers.
Marketers must answer 2 crucial questions
Which philosophical approach is ideal for a business to use while formulating its marketing strategies?
What weight will the organization’s interests, those of its clients, and those of society as a whole carry?
There are five distinct frameworks that businesses may use when formulating and implementing their marketing strategy in order to respond to these questions.
These five different philosophies of marketing management are also considered to be alternative marketing ideas.
Marketing concepts or marketing management philosophies are as follows:
The Concept of Societal Marketing
The manufacturing strategy goes with the assumption that “Consumers will prefer things that are accessible and extremely inexpensive.” This idea represents one of the first marketing management approaches that sellers have relied on for decades.
When businesses take on this approach, there is a significant danger that they may concentrate excessively on their internal processes and lose sight of the overarching purpose.
In most cases, the manufacturing philosophy might result in a myopic approach to marketing. The management team is focused on increasing the effectiveness of production and distribution. Despite this, the production notion may nonetheless be a helpful philosophy in some contexts.
If a company makes the decision to conduct its business in accordance with this principle, it will work to maximize production efficiency in order to reduce the amount of money spent on manufacturing. In addition, in order for customers to prefer the company’s goods, the company will strive to broaden the scope of its distribution as much as is humanly feasible.
If these two conditions are met, it was determined that this method of manufacturing might be used.
One example of this is when there is more demand for a product than there is supply. This phenomenon is seen in marketplaces that are very price-sensitive and cognizant of their financial constraints. In these kinds of circumstances, the customer won’t care as much about the product’s quality or features as much as they care about the fact that they can possess it. As a result, producers will have an incentive in raising their production levels.
Two, if the product’s manufacturing costs are prohibitively expensive, then buyers will be less likely to purchase the item. At this location, the firm is concentrating all of its efforts on increasing production volume as well as improving technology in order to decrease costs.
A decrease in manufacturing costs boosts the company’s bottom line, which in turn contributes to an expansion of the market. Therefore, it is possible for a corporation to attempt to establish a dominating position in the market in which it competes.
In addition, this idea is put to use in organizations that provide services, such as hospitals. The implementation of this idea in service providers like hospitals is another subject of criticism since it has the potential to result in a decline in the quality of the service provided by the provider.
Production Concept example:
You will find that the market is swamped with low-cost items made in China, whether you shop on Amazon or in a traditional store. Everything from the low-cost plastic goods sourced from China has been added to your shopping basket.
The Chinese smartphone brand Vivo serves as the most effective illustration of the manufacturing approach. Their mobile devices are distributed across the Asian market to an almost exhaustive degree. You can stroll into any phone store in Asia, and by the time you leave, you’ll have the most cutting-edge model of Vivo’s smartphone available.
Definition of the Product
According to the product idea, customers will gravitate toward purchases of goods that provide the highest possible level of quality, performance, and creative features. Here. The implementation of ongoing product enhancements is a primary emphasis of marketing strategy.
Product quality and improvement are essential components of effective marketing strategies, and in some cases, they are the sole component. Myopia in marketing is another risk that might result from focusing just on the items offered by the firm.
The first three decades of the twentieth century saw an increase in the number of businesses and industries using methods of mass manufacturing. By the early 1930s, there was a surplus of manufactured products available compared to the amount of demand.
The manufacturers were struggling with an excess capacity for production and intense rivalry for consumers. They began to understand that customers like well-made items and are prepared to pay more for product frills, and as a result, the notion of the product began to take shape in the thoughts of many manufacturers.
The idea behind the product is based on the premise that customers are more likely to purchase items that are outstanding in terms of quality, performance, new features, and designs, and so on.
It is often believed that this marketing strategy was straightforward: the business that provided a standard product at the most affordable price would emerge victorious. A company that subscribes to this school of thought endeavors to enhance the quality, performance, and any other observable aspect of the goods it sells.
Those that adhere to the product idea mindset consistently work to enhance the quality of the items they produce.
The proponents of this idea hold the belief that customers are more likely to purchase items that are of high quality and that excel in comparison to similar offerings from competitors in the aforementioned categories.
A significant number of product-oriented businesses often develop their wares with very little or no input from the consumers for whom they are intended.
They are adamant in their conviction that the parts of product design or improvement that their engineers or designers are better equipped to understand than the consumers themselves.
They also do not evaluate the quality of their goods in relation to those of their rivals in order to make improvements to those items. They sometimes caught up with “LOVE AFFAIR” in terms of the quality of their product and acted in an exaggerated manner, similar to how individuals behave when they are in love with someone of the other sex.
Several decades ago, a senior executive at General Motors posed the following question: “How can the public know what sort of automobile they want before they see what is available?”
After the product has been designed and developed by engineers, it is next produced by the manufacturing department, priced by the finance department, and lastly marketed and sold by sales and marketing.
This idea is held by a great number of marketers even today, and its effect is such that some of them are even blinded to the fact that the market is moving in a different direction. There is relatively little space for marketing inside this approach.
The product is the primary focal point of this discussion. Therefore, it is understood that in the product concept, management fails to identify what business it is in, which leads to marketing myopia, also known as short-sightedness in the role of marketing. This short-sightedness on the role of marketing is a problem because it causes the product concept to fail.
Product Concept example:
Take, for instance, a corporation that produces floppy disks of the highest possible quality. A consumer, however, does need a floppy disk, right?
Someone with that kind of responsibility needs something that can be utilized to store the data. It is possible to do this using a USB Flash drive, SD memory cards, portable hard drives, and other similar devices. The corporation shouldn’t be concerned with producing the finest floppy disk; rather, it should concentrate on satisfying the data storage requirements of its customers.
Apple is likely to be one of the first companies that come to mind when discussing brands that produce high-quality goods. Because their goods are such high quality, they are responsible for establishing new trends and standards in the business.
Logitech is known for producing computer accessories of an exceptionally high standard, including cameras, keyboards, and mice. Even if these high-quality items have higher prices, consumers nevertheless purchase them, and the sellers benefit from essentially free advertising thanks to reviews written by third parties.
The Marketing Concept
The premise that “consumers will not purchase enough of the firm’s goods unless it launches a large-scale marketing and promotion effort” is central to the selling philosophy.
Instead of concentrating on cultivating long-term connections with customers that are lucrative for the business, the management here prioritizes making sales transactions.
To put it another way, the objective is not so much to produce items that are in demand on the market as it is to sell those items that the firm already produces. A sales campaign with this level of aggressiveness exposes the company to extremely significant risks.
If a customer is persuaded to purchase a product with the expectation that they will like it, the marketer is making the assumption that the customer will enjoy the product. If the customer does not enjoy the product, the marketer is betting that the customer will forget their initial disappointment and purchase the product again in the future. This is often a highly incorrect and expensive assumption to make.
In most cases, the idea of selling is put into effect using products that are not wanted. The term “unsought products” refers to items that consumers often do not consider purchasing, such as insurance or blood donations.
These businesses need to be skilled in locating potential customers and convincing them of the advantages of a given product.
The notion of selling was also formed at the same time, at the same time as the product concept, which is still popular in a lot of different businesses.
The Great Depression in the United States showed that there is no longer a difficulty with creating sufficient quantities of high-quality items. The challenge is in actually selling such things.
The production of high-quality goods is not a guarantee that they will be purchased. During this time period, the essential role of selling, advertising, and many other marketing tasks was effectively structured, and the notion of selling was first conceived and developed.
It is a theory that, according to Philip Kotler’s definition, maintains that customers, if given the opportunity, would typically not acquire a sufficient quantity of the organization’s items. Sales may be guaranteed via the use of aggressive marketing and advertising strategies.
According to him, customers often exhibit purchasing inertia and are sometimes resistive to buying, and they need to be persuaded by various ways so that they are agreed to purchase. In order to do this, many measures are required. It is the responsibility of the corporation to persuade customers to make more purchases by using any and all methods of salesmanship that are at their disposal.
According to Kotler, the notion of selling is put into effect with the greatest vigor when it is applied to unsought commodities. Unsought items are those that customers do not often consider purchasing, such as insurance, encyclopedias, and burial plots.
When a company has more capacity than it needs and yet wants to sell what it produces, this notion is most often used. It begins with the point of production, which is focused on the goods, and its goal is to generate a profit via increasing sales volume. The techniques employed include selling and advertising in order to achieve this goal.
In its traditional meaning, marketing does not yet have a strategic place within the framework of this idea. In this case, marketing is predicated on making aggressive sales pitches. When it comes to transferring products from their makers to their customers, the purpose of personal selling is to push, whereas the function of advertising is to pull.
These two methods are utilized in conjunction with one another and are supported by marketing research, product creation, improvement, price, dealer organization, collaboration, and the distribution of the items themselves.
In order for selling to be successful, it is necessary to do a number of marketing operations beforehand. These activities include determining customer requirements, conducting market research, creating and establishing prices for products, and distributing goods.
If the marketer performs an excellent job of detecting customer wants, designing relevant items, pricing them appropriately, distributing them efficiently, and successfully advertising them, then these things will sell extremely readily.
A consumer who is dissatisfied with a product is likely to spread negative feedback about that product to eleven people they know, which will then multiply at the same rate by those people because negative feedback spreads quickly. Marketing strategies that rely on aggressive sales tactics carry significant risks.
It is important to note, among other intriguing aspects of this context, that the focus is placed on marketing research rather than on market research. In addition to its use in the trade of actual products, the selling notion is also put into effect in a variety of non-profit contexts, including offices that handle college admissions, political parties, and fund-raising for charitable causes.
Illustration of a Selling Concept:
Have you ever seen an advertisement on the internet or a commercial on television that you feel like you can’t get away from or hide from? The Selling Concept is now being used.
Eventually, this idea will be implemented at almost every company. There are advertisements wherever you look for “Mountain Dew.” It is unclear whether or not Mountain Dew is popular among consumers, but it is clear that PepsiCo is putting a lot of effort into promoting the beverage via advertisements.
The marketing strategy is adhered to by almost all brands of soft drinks and carbonated beverages. These beverages provide no positive advantages to your health and, in fact, do more damage than good; you can simply substitute water for them ( the most available substances on the earth).
And the firms who make soft drinks are aware of this, as seen by their nonstop advertising campaigns that cost millions of dollars.
The Idea Behind Marketing
According to the marketing concept, “achieving organizational goals depends on knowing the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions better than competitors do,” (Knowing the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions better than competitors do).
A “customer first” strategy is used by marketing management in this context. According to the principle of marketing, the ways to create sales and profits are to place an emphasis on providing value to the consumer.
The “sensing and reacting” attitude is at the core of the marketing concept, which centers on the client. It is not your responsibility to identify the ideal clients for your product; rather, it is your job to locate the ideal items for your ideal customers.
The idea of marketing and the idea of selling are two completely separate ideas that couldn’t be more different from one another
When corporations began reaching the potential to create in excess of the demand that was already in place, executives began becoming aware of the necessity to reevaluate the role of marketing in day-to-day corporate operations. They also began to recognize the substantial changes that had occurred in the market, in the realm of technology, and in the manner in which markets might be reached and communicated. These shifts ultimately resulted in the development of what is now known as the “marketing idea,” which is, at its core, a management philosophy.
When compared to preceding notions in terms of the principles that guide orientation, the marketing idea may be contrasted favorably. In the previous ways of thinking, vendors would bring their wares to the market with the expectation of finding buyers there. On the other hand, the notion of marketing proposes that marketing should begin with the consumers and then move back to the manufacture of the desired items in the appropriate quantities and with the appropriate specifications.
“Marketing management does not have the purpose of producing consumers inasmuch as it is responsible for establishing or growing markets,” writes Joseph C. Seibert. Rather than focusing on product development, the emphasis is placed on expanding market share.
According to Philip Kotler, the marketing concept maintains that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities toward determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets. Alternatively, the key to achieving organizational goals consists of determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions in a more effective and efficient manner than competitors.
This concept implies that marketing begins with the market, focuses attention on the demands of consumers, and achieves profitability via the satisfaction of customers through coordinated marketing efforts
According to this school of thought, the first thing a marketer is supposed to do is determine the requirements and preferences of his prospective customers. After that, he or she is supposed to work backward through the distribution channel and the actual physical distribution, continuing in this direction all the way past the shipping door, past the production line, and all the way up to the drawing boards and research laboratories. According to this theory, every facet of a business’s operation should be geared toward delivering what the clientele wants and needs.
One thing that must be emphasized here is the fact that the overarching goal or purpose of a company has a significant impact on the way that it conducts its day-to-day business. For instance, a company’s primary goal can be to raise the total amount of money it makes, even if one of its subgoals might be to fulfill the needs and requirements of customers.
According to what has been discussed so far, the core of the marketing idea consists of four primary pillars:
oriented toward the client,
coordinated marketing efforts, as well as
The arguments presented above point to an additional, more precise definition of the marketing notion that W. J. Stanton proposed. According to him, “in its greatest definition, the marketing idea is a business philosophy that argues that consumers’ demand fulfillment is the economic and social justification of a company’s existence.” In other words, the notion of marketing is a business philosophy.
As a consequence of this, all of the company’s operations, including manufacturing, engineering, and financial matters, as well as marketing, need to be committed first to establishing what the customer’s demands are, and then to meet those wants while yet maintaining a healthy profit margin.
Market Concentration Is the Primary Objective of the Marketing Concept
The marketing notion proposes that an organization’s primary emphasis should be on marketing, rather than on the manufacturing or the sale of its products. It is not possible for a corporation to operate effectively in every market and fulfill the requirements of each market in today’s complex market environment.
As a result, it is optimal for a business to emphasize its focus on a certain section (or segments) of the overall heterogeneous market.
Putting the Customer First is the Second Pillar of the Marketing Concept
There is no assurance that a firm will be successful in the marketplace just by concentrating on one specific market. What is required for success is a focus on the customer, which means painstakingly outlining the requirements of the customer from the perspective of the consumer. This is something that can be accomplished by a business with the help of market research; hence, the function of market research is one that predominates in businesses that are focused on marketing concepts.
The success and development of a business are directly tied to the satisfaction of its clientele, making customer focus an essential component of every successful enterprise. There are both new and returning customers. Because it is so challenging and expensive to acquire new clients, it is essential for a business to hold on to the clients it already has.
A happy customer will return for more purchases, and they will also rave about the firm to their friends and family, which will boost the company’s reputation and make it easier to sell to new clients.
As a result, it is of the utmost importance for a business to have a customer-oriented focus, which means determining the requirements and preferences of customers and working hard to fulfill those requirements.
Because 96 percent of dissatisfied customers never notify the firm about their displeasure, a company should actively encourage consumers to voice their grievances in order to maximize the likelihood that those customers would feel satisfied with the service they get. As a result, the corporation needs to take the effort on its own in order to encourage consumers to lodge complaints.
It is also essential for a business since the feedback of an unhappy client has the potential to bring about the collapse of the organization. On the other side, a corporation might learn highly useful and unique ideas from the complaints of its consumers.
If the company knows what its customers want, it can improve both the quality of its products and the level of service it provides. As a result, it has the potential to enhance both the volume and quantity of loyal consumers.
Coordinated marketing is the third and final pillar of the marketing concept
The idea of marketing permeates the whole business as an overarching principle. First, all of the marketing functions have to be properly coordinated with one another in order to achieve success, and second, marketing itself has to be well coordinated with the other departments in order to achieve success. A business that is run according to the marketing idea is required to plan, organize, coordinate, and govern its whole operation as if it were a single system working toward the accomplishment of a singular set of goals that are relevant to the entire organization.
There are a number of clear benefits to coordinating the many marketing responsibilities with one another, the primary one being the reduction or elimination of conflict. For instance, if the marketing operations are not coordinated with one another, the salesforce may be extremely critical of marketing people for establishing a very high sales goal. This may occur because marketing professionals have not coordinated with each other.
The fact that marketing cannot function alone is the driving force behind the need to coordinate with other departments. In the event that workers in other departments are unaware of the ways in which their actions affect consumer pleasure, the marketing department will be unable to do so on its own.
A corporation must engage in internal as well as external marketing activities in order to be considered marketing-oriented.
Internal marketing entails effectively recruiting, instructing, and motivating staff members to provide superior service to clients and win their approval.
Internal marketing has to come first since a firm can’t go on to external marketing if it’s not prepared to meet the needs of its customers first. In the framework of the marketing idea, marketing transforms into the fundamental driving force behind the whole organization.
The standing of employees working in marketing changes as well, and the function of marketing becomes more prominent within the functioning of the organization. From a marketing point of view, the whole organization contributes to the creation of a product, as well as its manufacturing and sale. Concerning the line of work that we are in, the corporation, for instance, states that “we sell beauty and hope instead of we sell cosmetics” as its official line of work.
The implementation of the marketing idea also results in a shift in the relative significance of an organization’s various tiers of management. The company is structured such that the consumers come first, followed by the front-line employees who interact with, service, and ultimately please the customers.
Middle management is there to support front-line employees so that they can better serve customers, and top management stays at the base to support middle management so that they can provide support to front-line employees in an effective and efficient manner. Front-line employees are supported by middle management in order for them to be able to better serve customers.
Profitability is the fourth and final pillar of the marketing concept
The goal of the marketing idea is to generate money by providing exemplary service to one’s clientele. This indicates that a profit may be achieved by catering to the requirements of the clients.
To remain profitable over the long term and keep up with the ever-evolving demands of its clientele, a business that is built on the marketing concept must constantly evaluate and adapt its offerings in terms of product, service, and activities to stay ahead of the curve and provide superior customer satisfaction than its rivals.
Illustration of a Marketing Concept:
The marketing idea is followed by establishments such as restaurants and new businesses. They make an effort to get an understanding of the customer and provide the finest product or service possible, which is beneficial for the industry overall.
The “Dollar Shave Club” is the most prominent illustration of this. They caused a shift in the market for men’s grooming products. They have come to the realization that their earlier grooming goods as well as their pricing were not meeting the needs of their customers.
Whereas the grooming products of other companies might cost hundreds of dollars to purchase for only one month. The ‘Dollar Shave Club’ is a subscription service that offers convenient home delivery of higher-quality shaving items for a couple of dollars each month.
The distinction between the selling concept and the marketing concept
A sharp distinction was made by Harvard professor Theodore Levitt between the selling and marketing philosophies in his work. His perspective was that “selling concentrates on the requirements of the vendor, while marketing focuses on the needs of the customer.”
Selling is preoccupied with the seller’s need to convert his product into cash; marketing is preoccupied with the idea of satisfying the needs of the customer utilizing the product and with the whole cluster of things associated with creating, delivering, and finally consuming it. Selling is preoccupied with the idea of converting the seller’s product into cash; marketing is preoccupied with the idea of satisfying the needs of the customer by utilizing the
You are aware that the concept of marketing is founded on four pillars, namely, the target market, the needs of the customer, integrated marketing, and profitability. It takes an outside-inside view.
On the other hand, the notion of selling adopts an inside-outside point of view
In order to generate profitable sales, businesses that are centered on the selling concept begin their planning with the factory, place their attention on the products they already offer, and engage in extensive marketing and sales efforts.
The marketing concept begins with a market that is clearly defined, places an emphasis on satisfying the needs of customers, organizes all of the activities that will have an effect on customers, and ultimately generates profits by delighting those customers.
The societal marketing idea raises the issue of whether the pure marketing concept ignores the possibility of conflicts between the short-term demands of consumers and the welfare of consumers over the long term.
According to the social marketing idea, “marketing strategy should give value to consumers in a manner that preserves or enhances both the consumer’s and society’s well-being.
It asks for sustainable marketing, which is marketing that is responsible both socially and ecologically, and which satisfies the requirements of companies and customers in the present while simultaneously protecting or strengthening the capacity of future generations to satisfy their own needs.
The Societal Marketing Concept prioritizes the well-being of humans above maximizing profits and catering to consumer whims
The alarm about global warming has been triggered, and we need a breakthrough in order to make effective use of our resources. In light of this, businesses are gradually attempting to either fully or partially implement the concept of societal marketing.
This is a management orientation that basically holds that the most important task of the company is to determine the needs and wants of target markets and to adapt the organization to deliver the desired satisfactions more efficiently and effectively than its competitors in a way that maintains and improves the well-being of consumers in particular and society in general. In other words, this is a management orientation that emphasizes customer centricity.
When formulating their marketing strategies, businesses are required to strike a balance between three competing priorities: maximizing revenue for the firm, satisfying customer needs, and acting for the public good.
The idea of societal marketing could be implemented by businesses, but only if doing so would not put them at a disadvantage in the marketplace or reduce their profits. This is due to the fact that the primary objective of any modern business is to ensure the satisfaction of its clientele while simultaneously maximizing revenue and growth potential.
Illustration of the Societal Marketing Concept:
It is not easy to discover a huge corporation that is entirely devoted to its social responsibilities, despite the fact that many large firms sometimes introduce initiatives or goods that are beneficial to society.
We can see that Adidas is doing very well since they are continuing to back Colin Kaepernick despite the criticism that they are under from a variety of different groups. With its electric automobiles and solar roof panels/tiles, Tesla intends to make a significant contribution to the movement toward environmentally friendly energy.
In the Real World, Companies Follow a Blend of Different Marketing Concepts Conclusion:
Companies often do not adhere strictly to a single marketing idea. They often use a variety of marketing strategies or alter their approach in response to the current state of the market, the level of competition, and the volume of sales.